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Uttar Pradesh Culture
 

Architecture: Architectural legacies of the past millennia of Uttar Pradesh survive to varying extent. The oldest of them fall within the purview of archeology or mythology; religious places in the State – identifiable in the narratives of Puranas and other sacred literature of Indian religions – have architectural edifices that are very old and have been built over repeatedly in course of time.

Medieval kings and emperors have left imposing monuments: forts, palaces, temples, mosques and mausoleums, whose external and internal grandeur recalls the opulence of those times. British colonial architecture is still seen in many cities' judicial buildings, hospitals, banks, post offices, police stations, and railway stations.

there are three industries they are cotton metal and leather

Art and craft: Uttar Pradesh is famous for its rich heritage of art and craft. Most famous centres are the following:

Bareilly boasts for its Zari work, (a type of fabric decoration), Surma (Kohl) and intricate ear-rings or ear-pendants called 'Jhumka'.

Firozabad, the city of bangles, is also a hub for crafting many glass accessories. The glass artifacts produced in its factories are of high value and are exported all over the country and around the world.

Kannauj is well known for oriental perfumes, scents and rose water and also for traditional tobacco products.

Kanpur is internationally known for its leather craft; shoes and other leather items are made here for the Indian market and exported to foreign countries as well.Kanpur is also known as Leather City of the World.

Khurja is famous for its ceramics pottery; in fact, the entire state is famous for its pottery not only in India but also around the world.

Lucknow, the capital, boasts of its cloth work and embroidery (chikan) work on silk and cotton garments.

Allahabad is Known for his National Institute of Art & craft College.

Bhadohi is known for carpets and also known as dollar-city; beside this, it is one of the highest revenue generating districts of UP.

Moradabad is well known for its metal-ware, especially brass artifacts.

Pilibhit is known for its wooden footwear (locally called Paduka or Khadaon) and also for flutes made of wooden pipes. Flutes are exported to Europe, America and other countries.

Saharanpur is known all over India and abroad for its wood-carving items produced there.

Varanasi is famous for its Banarasi saris and silk. A banarasi sari is an essential part of any marriage in the state.

Language and literature: Uttar Pradesh is often referred to as the 'Hindi heartland of India'. While the languages of state administration are Hindi, established by the Uttar Pradesh Official Language Act, 1951, and Urdu, established by the Amendment to the same in 1989, the native languages of the state are considered as dialects of Hindi, both by the common populace as well as the State and Central Governmental authorities. Linguistically, the state spreads across the Central, East-Central and Eastern zones of the Indo-Aryan languages, the major native languages of the state being, Awadhi, Bundeli, Braj Bhasha, Kannauji and the vernacular form of Khari boli, which also forms the basis for the standardised Hindi and Urdu registers. Bagheli is spoken on the southwestern fringes of the state. The state government promotes the native dialects in cultural festivals – education in the dialects, however, is negligible. Moreover, the literature of the two main literary dialects of the medieval era, Braj Bhasha and Awadhi, is considered to be subsumed under Hindi literature. While once these two dialects were the main literary vehicles in the region, any progress in literature in them or any of the other native languages is negligible.

Dance and music: The state is home to a very ancient tradition in dance and music. During the eras of Guptas and Harsh Vardhan, Uttar Pradesh was a major centre for musical innovation. Swami Haridas was a great saint-musician who championed Hindustani classical music. Tansen, the great musician in Mughal Emperor Akbar's court, was a disciple of Swami Haridas. The ragas sung by Tansen were believed to be so powerful that they could bring rain, or light a fire, when recited.

Kathak, a classical dance form, involving gracefully coordinated movements of feet and arms along with the entire body, grew and flourished in Uttar Pradesh. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was a great patron and a passionate champion of Kathak. Today, the state is home to two prominent schools of this dance form, namely, Lucknow Gharana and Banaras Gharana.

In modern times, Uttar Pradesh has given to the world music legends like Anup Jalota, Baba Sehgal, Girija Devi, Gopal Shankar Misra, Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Kishan Maharaj, Naushad Ali, Pandit Ravi Shankar, Shubha Mudgal, Siddheshwari Devi, Talat Mehmood, and Ustad Bismillah Khan. The legendary Ghazal singer Begum Akhtar was also a native of Uttar Pradesh; "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is said to be one of her best musical performances of all times. Uttar Pradesh is also the birthplace of British pop legend Sir Cliff Richard. The Bhatkhande Music Institute University at Lucknow is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande.

The region's folk heritage includes songs called rasiya (known and especially popular in Braj), which celebrate the divine love of Radha and Shri Krishna. These songs are accompanied by large drums known as bumb and are performed at many festivals. Other folk dances or folk theater forms include:

* Khayal
* Naqal – (mimicry)
* Nautanki
* Qawwali
* Raslila
* Swang
* Ramlila, which includes enacting the entire Ramayana.

Lokrang Sanskritik Samiti – an organisation of Jogia Janubi Patti, Fazilanagar, Kushinagar – is doing research work in the field of Folk-songs, Folk-artists and Folk-cultures. In the month of May, every year the Samiti organises its function "Lokrang". More than 150 artists and writers participate in this programme.

 
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